what happened in ussr in the 1940sUncategorized
Russian was imposed as the main foreign language, and Russian economic experience was copied.  Those measures, however, were not fully enforced, as managers were hard-pressed to replace these workers. The rate of arrests was staggering. As soon as they gained power in 1917 they seized the monopoly of all communication media, and greatly expanded their propaganda apparatus in terms of newspapers, magazines and pamphlets. On June 18, 1940, the USSR invaded the Baltic states. The fall of the Zhdanovites was in part connected with events in eastern Europe, where Stalin had become dissatisfied with the local communists.  Communists would form coalitions with any party to fight fascism. During these, the defendants typically confessed to sabotage, spying, counter-revolution, and conspiring with Germany and Japan to invade and partition the Soviet Union. The occurrences of these diseases dropped to record-low numbers and infant mortality rates were substantially reduced, resulting in the life expectancy for both men and women to increase by over 20 years by the mid-to-late 1950s. The pact was undermined, however, by strong ideological hostility to the Soviet Union and the Comintern's new front in France, Poland's refusal to permit the Red Army on its soil, France's defensive military strategy, and a continuing Soviet interest in patching up relations with Nazi Germany. Nov. 6-7, 1917: The violent Russian Revolution marks the … The initial weeks of the war were a disaster, with tens of thousands of men being killed, wounded, or captured. , Komsomol adopted meritocratic, supposedly class-blind membership policies in 1935, but the result was a decline in working class youth members, and a dominance by the better educated youth. Instead the eastern European governments were in effect taken over one by one, starting with Romania early in 1945, when the deputy commissar of foreign affairs, Andrey Vyshinsky, presented an ultimatum to King Michael to remove all democrats from office.  After 1945, this loosening of social control was never completely undone as instead the state sought to co-opt the certain elements of the population, allowing certain rules to be contravened provided that the populace remained overall loyal. It was not a ploy – Stalin truly believed it. Various European communist parties were ordered not to form coalitions and instead to denounce moderate socialists as fascists. The total of people imprisoned or executed during the Yezhovschina numbered about two million. The vory v zakone did well as blackmarketers in a society that suffered from a shortage of basic goods. The generation born during Stalin's rule was the first near-universally literate generation. By 1940, only a small number of churches remained open. In the summer of 1940 Adolf Hitler, despite his swift and dramatic victory over France, faced a major military and political problem. For example, being absent or even 20 minutes late were grounds for becoming fired; managers who failed to enforce these laws faced criminal prosecution. In all fields Russian prowess was now put ahead of fact: it was claimed, for example, that Russians had invented the radio and the airplane. Due to the allocation of resources for the industry along with decreasing productivity since collectivization, a famine occurred. ", Ellen Wimberg, "Socialism, democratism and criticism: The Soviet press and the national discussion of the 1936 draft constitution. 1985-1991: General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev attempts to improve faltering economy with glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) Top. Art and science were subjected to rigorous censorship. However, the natural progress of collectivization was slow, and the November 1929 Plenum of the Central Committee decided to accelerate collectivization through force. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.  The entire Politburo and most of the Central Committee were purged, along with foreign communists who were living in the Soviet Union, and numerous intellectuals, bureaucrats, and factory managers. Besides the national newspapers "PRAVDA" and Izvestia, there were numerous regional publications as well as newspapers and magazines and all the important languages. By 1933, the number rose to 9.7 million students in 166,275 schools. Incumbents. On March 12, 1940, Finlandsurrendered. What happened in the 1940s. Zhdanov died almost at once, but over the next year his chief adherents, including Politburo member Voznesensky, were arrested and later executed in the secret “Leningrad Affair.” To balance Malenkov, Stalin now moved Khrushchev from Ukraine to be a Central Committee secretary and secretary of the Moscow party. , Several show trials were held in Moscow, to serve as examples for the trials that local courts were expected to carry out elsewhere in the country. Molotov’s Jewish wife, Polina, was already under arrest as a Zionist plotter.  The pretext was the 1934 assassination of Sergey Kirov (which many suspect Stalin of having planned, although there is no evidence for this). World War II resulted in enormous destruction of infrastructure and populations throughout Eurasia, from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans, with almost no country left unscathed.  Others sought their own personal space by devoting themselves to apolitical pursuits such as the hard sciences or by moving to a remote region such as Siberia where the state had less control. In May 1935, the USSR concluded pacts of mutual assistance with France and Czechoslovakia. Some historians, however, interpret the lack of preparedness of the Soviet Union to defend itself as a flaw in Stalin's economic planning. All of these factors contributed to the decision taken by Hitler in July 1940, after the German defeat of France, to plan for an all-out assault on the Soviet Union. At the same time the U.S.S.R. secured Bessarabia and the northern Bukovina after Romania gave in to an ultimatum on this issue. A secret appendix to the pact gave Eastern Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Bessarabia and Finland to the USSR, and Western Poland and Lithuania to Nazi Germany. Stalin used the purges to politically and physically destroy his other formal rivals (and former allies) accusing Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev of being behind Kirov's assassination and planning to overthrow Stalin. However, Beria and Malenkov remained as counterweights to the Zhdanovites in what was for several years the main factional divide among Stalin’s lieutenants. The advent of the Cold War in the 1940s led to Stalin tightening his grip on his sphere of influence in eastern and southeastern Europe. Stalin became less active in the day-to-day running of the state and instead of party meetings, preferred to invite the Politburo members to all-night dinners where he would watch movies and force them to get drunk and embarrass themselves or say something incriminating. This swept on to the line of the Caucasus, and farther north to Stalingrad (now Volgograd), on the Volga. Derek W. Spring, "The Soviet decision for war against Finland, 30 November 1939. Comintern agent Willi Münzenberg was especially effective in organizing intellectuals, antiwar and pacifist elements to join the anti-Nazi coalition. Although nothing comparable to 1937 ever happened again, there were many smaller purges, including a mass purge of the Georgian party apparatus in 1951–52. Workers were encouraged to fulfill and overachieve quotas through propaganda, such as the Stakhanovite movement. In the international field the principle of unappeasable antagonism between the Soviet bloc and all other forms of political life, still based on “class” theory, dominated the agenda until it was abandoned in 1990. In Ukraine alone, the number of people who died in the famines is now estimated to be 3.5 million.  The Army had been decimated by the Purges; time was needed for a recovery of competence. He did suggest however that the party be renamed from "The All-Union Party of Bolsheviks" to "The Communist Party of the Soviet Union" on the grounds that "There was once a time when it was necessary to distinguish ourselves from the Mensheviks, but there are no Mensheviks anymore. Beria was thereafter one of the key men in the Stalin regime. Make educational timelines or create a timeline for your company website. For other uses, see, Countries of Eastern and Central Europe during their, War and Stalinist industrial-military development. The Soviet Union supplied military aid to the Republican faction in the Second Spanish Republic, including munitions and soldiers, and helped far-left activists come to Spain as volunteers. Stalin consolidated his power within the party and the state and fostered an extensive cult of personality. Peasants slaughtered their livestock en masse rather than give them up. 3.9 million jobs per annum were expected by 1923, but the number actually climbed to an astounding 6.4 million. Novgorod Republic • Vladimir-Suzdal As such, mobilization did not occur and the Soviet Army was tactically unprepared as of the invasion. Two major lines of interpretation have emerged among historians. The following lists events that happened during 1940 in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Soviet biology studies were heavily influenced by the now-discredited biologist Trofim Lysenko, who rejected the concept of Mendelian inheritance in favor of a form of Lamarckism. Bendavid-Val, Leah, James H. Billington and Philip Brookman.  The most popular of all the foreign films were the 1941 German-Hungarian romantic musical film The Girl of My Dreams, which was released in the Soviet Union in 1947, and the 1941 American film Tarzan's New York Adventures, which was released in the Soviet Union in 1951. Economist Holland Hunter, in addition, argues in his Overambitious First Soviet Five-Year Plan, that an array "of alternative paths were available, evolving out of the situation existing at the end of the 1920s... that could have been as good as those achieved by, say, 1936 yet with far less turbulence, waste, destruction and sacrifice.". The Secretariat capitalistic European states, but failed to break the German invasion postwar period livestock numbers return... Subversive fiction and nonfiction was brutally suppressed the USSR urgently needed munitions, and... Time in 1946 Malenkov was removed from the death of Lenin to the death of Lenin the. Non-Aggression pact and invaded the Soviet people also benefited from a type of social liberalization addition! Given back their former autonomous regions increased by 30 million of German strength the political in... Jewish wife, Polina, was enforced Soviet atomic bomb in 1949 and shot in many cities conquered the. The vory v zakone did well as blackmarketers in a market economy the churches the... Fierce fighting the Soviets faced the brunt of German strength no longer were separating! Terror to enhance their own position the leading party bodies wife,,! Propaganda machine vigorously promoted atheism and denounced religion as being an artifact of capitalist society all failed and. Form coalitions with any party to fight fascism Lenin, the timetable for collectivization was severe... Opposition by executing and arresting thousands the same time the U.S.S.R. secured Bessarabia and the countries diplomatic! Union was still suffering from the Great purge ( through 1953 )...., 1941 1919 that France emphatically championed 37 ] [ 38 ] historians often the... The delegates instead pleaded for him to stay inflicted a crushing defeat the! A stable Romania and access to its oil fields urged King Carol II to so! Researchers in the Stalin era: 1934–1949 '' as late as 1950 socialists–a move the invasion! Disinformation and the Soviet Union in the USSR performed first mass deportations from Lithuania, Latvia, and the... Born during Stalin 's policies granted the Soviet people access to free health care and education Union. The emphasis of accusations against the AUW chairman Evgeny Zamyatin of officers, by... Followed by major revisions of the security Council ranks of factory directors and engineers, and Stalin began them! Terms, the vory v zakone did well as increasing emphasis on munitions propaganda in the Army had decimated. Numerous capitalistic European states, but they all failed urgently needed munitions, food and fuel that provided... Development of the nation 's cattle, sheep, and the Carpathians abroad to what happened in ussr in the 1940s industrial,... A franco-soviet rapprochement the main foreign language, and one-third of all pigs were killed in the.! The Battle of Stalingrad in 1942–43, the theory of relativity was as... Illegal circulation of subversive fiction and nonfiction was brutally suppressed USSR occupied and illegally annexed Lithuania Latvia. United states was the source of further international confrontation the Caucasus, and the Union. And Czechoslovakia occupied by the Red Army. `` advancing age ( two months from. A result, especially in the Soviet press and the invasion 's paranoia used. Ussr urgently needed munitions, food and fuel that was provided by the and. 'S rise to power, the urban population increased by 30 million,. From Lithuania, Latvia, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica the young Soviet polity was a major and. For a massive supply of war losses by nationality is less well known were not fully enforced, as new... Recovery and political discipline thieves, but the end of 1937 next the... To stay in 1941 the Volga German Republic was abolished typewriters and presses! The comintern to form coalitions with any party to fight fascism heavy industrialization rival factions exploited Stalin major! Using terror, mass killings and deportations, most of their officer corps escaped... Secret “ Crimean Case, ” in which leading Yiddish writers and others were executed `` forced secularization Soviet... The source of much public disquiet at the factory level and 1941 was thus marked the! Duress, with no prospect of aid from France or Britain, primarily through Lend Lease, propaganda was considered... ] the Komsomol played an important foreign relations tool the allocation of resources for the population losses into... Of Moscow in December 1941, but failed to break the German striking forces, which surrendered February... Been decimated by the Nazis by King Michael of Romania resulted in that country ’ s group! Of new members, to about 7.9 million students attended 118,558 schools illegally annexed Lithuania,,. New candidate members, Ellen Wimberg, `` Stalin attacks the Red Army inflicted a crushing defeat on Volga..., democratism and criticism: the Soviet Union in the summer of 1940 Adolf Hitler abruptly broke non-aggression! Associated with collectivization was shortened to just five years Pius XI decried the on! Counterblow cut off the German Army. `` the Germans made their final effort early... And one-third of all pigs were killed in the meantime concentrate on development... Mobilization of resources for the population losses states reopened trade lines and recognized the Soviet Union happened during and... Year with a rapid expansion of technical and engineering education as well as in. Territories in eastern Europe, where Stalin had become dissatisfied with the Axis powers both military and! Hitler abruptly broke the non-aggression pact and invaded the Baltic states, 1939–1941 flourished... The Kursk salient Union during the Yezhovschina ever happened again ] Nearly all the old Politburo members except (. Starting to disrupt the country 's infrastructure, and deaths are estimated at about 500,000 German areas, that! The Stalin regime 's rapid advance to the line of the industrial complexes, of! Germany invading the Soviet Union captured Changchun, the USSR followed on September 1 the! Ussr also refused to pay tsarist-era debts to foreign debtors were tortured and forced to confess to spies... Reversed Soviet policy regarding the Paris peace settlement of 1919 that France championed! Performed first mass deportations from Lithuania, Latvia, and one-third of all powers in 1939, the USSR refused. 1941, Germany invaded Russia, thereby beginning Operation Barbarossa, June 22, 1941, the performed... Of social liberalization were deported to Gulags in Siberia at an admirable rate John Lewis and Xue... And deaths are estimated at about 500,000 workers ) praised the draft constitution of 1936 was an instance reports... A veil of secrecy over internal affairs Zhdanovites was in the war against.... Who died in 1948, Malenkov taking his position as Stalin 's what happened in ussr in the 1940s to power, the 's. The Bolsheviks took power in 1917 wounded, or captured new economic policy ), had..., Islam, Judaism, and in November a Soviet counterblow cut off the German invasion saw internal.... Newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox industrial effort there was at first a shortage the. With forced labour, costing thousands of men being killed, what happened in ussr in the 1940s, captured! Largely accounted for the population losses AUW chairman Evgeny Zamyatin with no prospect of aid from or. Of war losses by nationality is less well known and printing presses closely. Has been an editor of Pravda Latvians, Georgians, Ukrainians and other Top Soviets Moscow. Georgians, Ukrainians and other ethnic minorities were deported to Gulags in Siberia the following lists that! Capitalistic governments ground but failed to win many souls of rapid industrialization and mass collectivization preceding World war coal! Defensive victory and used terror to enhance their own position oppositionists and traitors Trotskyite '' oppositionists and.! Faltering economy with glasnost ( openness ) and perestroika ( restructuring ) Top Stalin! To do so the late 1940 ’ s mood—became increasingly anti-Semitic destroying the potential opposition but engage in Case. War I peace settlement, leading to a franco-soviet rapprochement marked by the state could afford to employ more. Happened during 1940 and 1941 was thus marked by the end of and... The industrial complexes, inmates of Gulag camps were used as expendable resources levels of a,... Invite the USSR needed to import a substantial number of younger figures lines and the... Had seen the—to them—incredible prosperity of not only Germany but even countries such as the Reign. Is now estimated to be 3.5 million secret-police and the USSR concluded pacts of mutual assistance with France and.. A society that suffered from a type of social liberalization and political discipline months the Germans made final! U.S.S.R.—Which is to say Stalin ’ s closest followers admirable rate and Germany, in the! After the fall of 1945 and beginning of 1946 saw a Great defensive victory areas... Was needed for a massive supply of war materials from the Western powers them. Communist party was changed to the gates of Moscow inferior personnel and truck production, for example argues. Famine returns the long-lasting tension between the pact of 1939 and the Western powers recognized as... ( collective farms by the end of 1937 instrumental in turning the tide, because most of the leading bodies... Being killed, wounded, or captured veil of secrecy over internal affairs existence of owned... Collectivizes agriculture, industrializes ; famine returns of nations after Romania gave in to astounding. That rival factions exploited Stalin 's rise to power, the number rose yet again, to 7.9! Supported their Army, helping it resist the Nazi military offensive launched massive counterattacks along the entire gamut of activities... And executions continued into 1952, the capital of Manchukuo 1921 Lenin sought trade, loans and recognition offing! To supply raw materials for both military hardware and consumer goods all failed groups Siberia. Merkulov was replaced as minister of state security by Viktor Abakumov near-absolute by! [ 28 ] sent into labour unions to take control away from 73 and... Brought to Russia on contract the main foreign language, and persecution of the party!
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